24 December 2018

Opening Vision (Revelation 1:8-20)

seven lampstands
          The opening vision centers the reader’s attention on Jesus Christ and his care for the churches of Asia, congregations living marginalized lives among often-hostile populations. At least one assembly faced imminent persecution.
          John does not begin by holding up his apostolic credentials but identifies himself with the plight of the churches. He is a “fellow-participant” with them in the tribulation and endurance for Jesus.
          The first vision consists of two segments: John’s vision of the Risen Christ walking among his churches (1:9-20), and seven messages by Jesus to the seven “messengers” of the churches (2:1-3:22). The vision of Christ includes John’s commissioning, (1:9-11), a description of what he saw (1:12-16), and its interpretation (1:17-20). The image is of Jesus as the High Priest who tends, encourages and corrects his people.
  • Patmos - (Revelation 1:9) – “I, John, your brother and fellow-participant with you in the tribulation and kingdom and endurance in Jesus, was in the isle that is called Patmos for the word of God and the testimony of Jesus.”
           The island of Patmo was a penal colony; it had a large enough population to support a gymnasium, an Acropolis, and shrines to Artemis and Apollo. But its geographic isolation made it an excellent location to banish political undesirables and was only accessible by ship.
          Political offenders could be exiled under the penalty of deportation in insulam. This included the confiscation of property and the loss of civil rights. The purpose was banishment and isolation; it did not necessarily involve forced labor. Only the Emperor could impose that penalty.
          Later church tradition held John was forced to labor in the mines on Patmos, but this is uncorroborated; there is no evidence that mines ever existed on the island in the Roman period (William Ramsay, The Letters to the Seven Churches).
          Another regulation under which individuals were exiled was relegatio in insulam. This did not mean the loss of property or civil rights. This sentence could be imposed by a provincial governor if the offender was exiled to a location within his jurisdiction (Patmos belonged to the province of Asia). According to the church father Tertullian, John was exiled under this law (De Praescript. Haer. 36).
          Probability supports this latter option. It is unlikely the emperor would take any interest in the case of a minor provincial like John. After 64 A.D. Roman authorities began to view Christianity as an illegal religion. It ceased to be considered a Jewish sect and under Roman law, Judaism was a legal religion with defined rights. Once Christianity became illegal believers could be compelled to participate in the imperial cult.
          A local magistrate might be inclined to leave well enough alone. However, he was required to make an inquiry and undertake prosecution, if warranted, if someone accused a Christian of refusing to acknowledge the divine dignity of the emperor. If a Christian so refused a local magistrate had little choice but to convict him or her and mete out the required punishment.
          The “letter” to Smyrna describes the “slander of them who say they are Jews and are not” (Revelation 2:9-10), which uses the Greek noun blasphémia. While it can mean “blasphemy” in a religious sense, it more likely denotes “slander” or false accusation. Christians were accused by opponents to local authorities for activities offensive to Roman sensibilities, accusations “slanderous” in the eyes of Jesus. Consequently, some saints faced imprisonment, loss of property and privilege, even execution.
           John came to be on Patmos “on account of the word of God and the testimony of Jesus.” The preposition dia (“on account of”) indicates either he went to Patmos to proclaim the gospel or was banished there because of his preaching activity. The second alternative is more probable; John is a “fellow participant” in the tribulation.
           Internal and external evidence favors the understanding that John found himself on Patmos as the result of legal banishment. This is why he could identify so readily with the suffering churches of Asia, their “fellow-participant.”

Fellow-Participant
           John does not hold up his apostolic authority. He is simply “John,” which suggests he is a known quantity to the churches. More relevant, he aligns himself with the plight of his churches. He is a “brother and fellow-participant in the tribulation and kingdom and endurance in Jesus.”
          “Fellow participant” or sugkoinōnos denotes joint participation; it is related to the Greek for “fellowship” (cp. 1 Corinthians 9:23; Romans 11:17; Philippians 1:7).
          The single Greek article (“the”) in the clause modifies all three nouns (tribulation, kingdom, endurance), which means the three nouns are grammatically linked; each is part of a whole. To be “in Jesus” means tribulation, kingdom, and endurance, what it means to follow the Lamb.
          “Tribulation” translates thlipsis, a “pressing together,” hence “pressure, distress, trouble, tribulation, affliction.” Tribulation is something already experienced by the church at Smyrna, and is about to endure again (2:9-10). In a later vision, John will see an innumerable multitude “coming out of the great tribulation” (7:14). In Revelation tribulation is not something God inflicts on the ungodly but what faithful Christians endure on account of their testimony.
           The churches participate in the “kingdom.” An inference is the kingdom or reign of Christ is a present reality. Believers already participate in his reign, already the churches constitute a “kingdom and priests” (1:6; 5:10; 20:4-6).
           Also “in Jesus” is the “endurance.” The call to endure is a theme threaded throughout Revelation (2:2-3; 2:19; 3:10; 13:10; 14:12). Jesus promised the Philadelphians that “because you kept the word of my endurance I will keep you from the hour of test” (3:10). The assault against believers by the Beast is identified as the “endurance and the faith of the saints” (13:10; 14:12).

“I came to be in Spirit in the Lord’s Day”
          John declares, “I came to be in spirit in the Lord’s day.” The verb is ginomai, “to become, to come to be.” It signifies a change of condition or state. The tense is a past action seen in its entirety. “I came to be” depicts a singular event at a particular point in time. John found himself suddenly “in spirit.”
          “I came to be in the spirit in the Lord’s Day” is balanced with the preceding clause, “I came to be on the isle called Patmos.” Both use the first person and the aorist tense form of ginomai and the preposition en (“in”). This is a link between John’s receipt of the vision and his banishment.
          The repetition of the preposition en marks a spatial contrast. Roman magistrates may have placed John on Patmos, but Jesus “in the spirit” placed him in the day of the Lord, where he saw the whole situation from Christ’s perspective.
          The single occurrence of ginomai in verse 10 is modified by two prepositional clauses: “I came to be in spirit in the Lord’s Day,” more literally, “I came to be in spirit in the lordly day.” John found himself “in spirit” and “in the Lord's day.” Both nouns are indirect objects of the verb, “came to be.”
          Whatever “Lord’s day” refers to is part of John’s “in spirit” experience; he found himself “in the Lord’s day” as a result of being “in spirit.” The “Lord’s day” more accurately translates “lordly day.” There is no evidence that the church ever designated Sunday the Lord’s Day in the first century, a tradition not attested before the late second century.
          “In the spirit” and similar terms refer to out of the ordinary visionary experiences (e.g., Ezekiel 8:3, 11:1, 11:24, 37:1). Revelation uses the same term four times at key junctures to describe John “in spirit” (4:2, 17:3, 21:10).
          Elsewhere the “day of the Lord” refers to a coming day of judgment on the wicked and vindication of the righteous, not the first day of the week (cp. Isaiah 13:6, Joel 1:15, 2:31, Amos 5:18, Obadiah 15, Zephaniah 1:7, Malachi 4:5, 1 Corinthians 5:5, 1 Thessalonians 5:2). This is the intended sense here. Having found himself “in spirit,” John was projected into “the day of the Lord.” Revelation does not use “day of the Lord” again, but note several similar clauses: “the great day of their wrath has come” (6:17), “the great day of God, the Almighty” (16:14), “in one day her plagues will come” (18:8).
          Four times John “came to be in spirit” and each time was transported to a different location. He “came to be in spirit” before the Divine Throne (4:2), in the wilderness (17:3), and on a great and high mountain before New Jerusalem (21:10).

“I heard behind me a Great Voice like a Trumpet”
          Upon hearing a great voice, John turned to see one like “a son of man in the midst of the seven lampstands.” The “great voice like a trumpet” alludes to Exodus 19:16 where Mount Sinai was covered by a thick cloud with thunder and lightning. All Israel heard “a loud trumpet’s voice” out of the cloud and trembled.

“What you see write in a scroll”
            John is to record all that he sees, the stress being on the visual aspect (though John also “hears” many things). He is to send all that he writes to seven churches in the cities of Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamum, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia and Laodicea. The order in which the cities are listed is the sequence by which a traveler from Patmos would visit each after landing in Ephesus.
          “Write what you see in a scroll” alludes to Habakkuk 2:2: “Yahweh answered me and said, ‘Write the vision, make it plain on tablets that one may read it swiftly.” This passage was already echoed in Revelation 1:3, “the one who reads” the things written in the prophecy. The Habakkuk passage was Yahweh’s response to the prophet’s complaint; how could a just God allow an attack by Babylon against Judah?
          John is commissioned to record a vision for all to read that lays out the final chapter of God’s redemptive plan for His people. John must write it all down in a scroll to make it plain to the churches of Asia.

One Like a Son of Man
          John sees a figure like a “son of man” walking among seven golden lampstands and holding seven stars. This develops the themes of suffering, kingdom, and priesthood from the Prologue. Christ as the judge is now added to the mix with imagery drawn from Old Testament passages (Daniel 7:13-14, 10:5-6, Zechariah 4:2, Ezekiel 43:2, Isaiah 11:4, 49:2).
          The opening line echoes Zechariah 4:1-2. An angel roused the prophet to behold another round of visions: “once more the angel who was speaking with me roused me up, just as a man might be roused up out of his sleep.”
          John saw one “like a son of man”; a human figure. As the vision unfolds it becomes clear this is the Christ exalted with all authority. The voice that mediates the vision is, therefore, that of Jesus.
          Additional language from Zechariah 4:1-2 is present. John sees seven golden lampstands. This refers not to lamps but to the stands that hold them. After the “son of man” figure, the lampstands and stars are the central features of the vision. Zechariah also saw a “lampstand all of gold,” a single one with seven branches like the seven-branched Menorah in the Tabernacle (Exodus 25:31-40). John sees seven lampstands rather than one with seven branches.
          The lampstands suggest a sanctuary setting. John sees the Son of Man walking among the lampstands while attending to them. The priests in the Tabernacle also tended lamps, trimmed their wicks and removed old ones, and replenished with oil where needed.
          The “one like a son of man” alludes to the Greek Septuagint version of Daniel 7:13-14: “Behold, with the clouds of the heavens one like a son of man was coming, and he approached the Ancient of days and before him they brought him near; and to him were given dominion and dignity and kingship.”
          The son of man is arrayed in a full-length robe adorned with a golden belt, all of which points to his priestly office (cp. Exodus 28:4; Leviticus 8:1-13 - “These are the garments which they shall make: a breast piece, an ephod, a robe, a coat of checker work, a turban, and a girdle; they shall make holy garments for Aaron your brother and his sons to serve me as priests”).
          The descriptions of the son of man’s glorious appearance borrows heavily from Daniel 10:5-6: “Then lifted I up mine eyes and looked, and, behold, a man clothed in linen, whose loins were girded with the bright gold of Uphaz, whose body was like Tarshish-stone and his face like the appearance of lightning, and his eyes were like torches of fire and his arms and his feet like the look of bronze burnished, and the sound of his words was like the sound of a multitude.”
            In Daniel’s vision, a man clothed in linen came to give him an understanding of what would befall his people upon latter days. The predicted events were described in Daniel chapters 11-12. Revelation alludes to Daniel 10:5 because of its concern with what happens to God’s people in “latter days.”
          The voice “like the sound of a multitude” is also from Daniel 10:6 and echoes Ezekiel 1:24 and 43:2. His “countenance shining as the sun” alludes to Judges 5:31: “be they who love Yahweh as the going forth of the sun in his might.”
          The sword is not held in either hand but flashes out of the figure’s mouth. This symbol of a double-edged sword wielded by Jesus occurs several more times (2:12, 2:16, 19:15-21). It symbolizes his authoritative words. It is reminiscent of two additional messianic passages, Isaiah 11:4 and Isaiah 49:2 (“He made my mouth like a sharp sword”).

The Interpretation
           “And when I saw him I fell at his feet as dead,” another parallel to Daniel 10:1-14 where Daniel found himself “in a deep sleep upon his face with his face to the earth.” Jesus proclaimed, “I am the first and the last, the living one, and I became dead and living am I unto the ages of the ages! And I have the keys of Death and of Hades.” “First and last” alludes to three passages from Isaiah, 41:4 (“I, Yahweh, first, and with them who are last”), 44:5-6 (“Thus says Yahweh, I am first and I last”), and Isaiah 48:9-15 (“I am the same, I the first, yea, I the last”).
          “First and last” parallels God’s claim in Revelation 1:8, “I am Alpha and Omega.” Jesus claims this high privilege because of his obedient death. As a result, Christ rules with God from the divine throne with absolute authority (3:21, 6:16-17, 7:9, 7:17).
          “I am the living one and I became dead,” a reference to his death and resurrection. This grounds the book’s visions in the death and resurrection of Jesus; he is highly exalted because of his faithful death (Philippians 2:6-11).
          “I have the keys of Death and of Hades.” This signifies the authority Christ now possesses. Death is an enemy of God destined for destruction (Isaiah 25:8, 1 Corinthians 15:26, 15:55, 2 Timothy 1:10, Hebrews 2:14, Revelation 20:14, 21:4). Hades is the abode of the dead corresponding to the Hebrew sheol. With his exaltation even hostile cosmic forces are subservient to Jesus (Colossians 1:16-20, 2:15-16, 1 Peter 3:22, Revelation 3:7, 6:1-8). More important, death no longer has the final word over the destiny of the churches. God promised his “servant, Eliakim the son of Hilkiah,” to lay upon him “the key of the House of David…to open and none shut” (Isaiah 22:20-25).
          “Write what things you saw, what they are, and what will come to pass after them.” The man in linen promised to show Daniel “what will happen to your people in the last of the days” (Daniel 10:1-14); Jesus now reveals “what things must soon come to pass.” The “last days” have arrived with the death and resurrection of Jesus (Revelation 1:1-3, 1:19, 4:1-2, 22:10); what was once remote is now at hand.
          John must write down all the things that he saw, what they “are,” and what “things are going to come to pass” after them. What he “saw” refers to the visions of the book. What they “are” refers to the interpretations of the visions, some of which are given in the book. “Are” translates the Greek verb eimi in the plural number and present tense (what “they are”). This understanding is demonstrated in the next verse. John saw seven lampstands, but “they are” (eisin) seven churches. The seven stars “are” seven messengers.
          This same verbal formula is used elsewhere to introduce interpretations. For example, the seven lamps of fire ARE (eisin) the seven Spirits of God (4:5); the seven horns and seven eyes ARE (eisin) the seven Spirits of God (5:6); the golden bowls of incense ARE (eisin) the prayers of the saints (5:8); the Two Witnesses ARE (eisin) two lampstands (11:4).
          “The mystery of the Seven Stars and the Seven Lampstands.” The mystery is that the seven stars and lampstands symbolize seven “messengers” and seven “churches.” Revelation interprets its visions symbolically not “literally.”
          The Greek term translated “messenger” may refer to human or angelic messengers. At this point, it is not clear whether human or angelic “messengers” are intended. However, the book’s pronounced blessing on “he who reads and they who hear” the words of the prophecy may be a clue to their identity. Did John send one messenger to read the book in each of the seven churches, or were seven men dispatched to each city with a copy?

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