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  1. Heirs of the Covenant - (With the ascension of Jesus, the gift of the Spirit arrived with blessings for all believers - The promise of Abraham) - {PDF Copy}
  2. The Life-Giving Spirit - (Promises of New Covenant and New Creation begin their fulfillment in the outpouring of God's life-giving Spirit) - {PDF Copy}
  3. The Spirit and the Last Days - (The outpouring of the Spirit on the Day of Pentecost marked the start of the last days) - {PDF Copy}
  4. Covenant, Creation, Resurrection - (The Gift of the Spirit is part of the New Covenant and the “first fruits” of the promised New Creation and resurrection) - {PDF Copy}
  5. In the Last Days -  (The outpouring of the Spirit on Pentecost signaled the arrival of the “last days,” just as prophesied by Joel) - {PDF Copy}
  6. Having begun in the Spirit - (The receipt of the Spirit while in an uncircumcised state is irrefutable proof that Gentiles are accepted by God AS GENTILES) - {PDF Copy}
  7. Tarry in Jerusalem - {PDF Copy} - (Acts 1:1-11 - Jesus commanded his disciples to tarry in Jerusalem until they received the Spirit, empowering them to become his witnesses)
  8. Between Law and Spirit - {PDF Copy} - (Acts 1:12-26 - Between the ascension and the gift of the Spirit, the apostles tarried in prayer and appointed Matthias to complete their number)
  9. When Pentecost Arrived - {PDF Copy} - (Acts 2:1-4 - On the day of Pentecost, the time of fulfillment arrived when Jesus bestowed the gift of the Spirit on his church)
  1. Controversy at Galatia - (The issue at Galatia was whether Gentiles must be circumcised and keep some, at least, of the deeds of the Torah) - {PDF Copy}
  2. Rescued from this Evil Age - (Paul anchored all that God has done in the past Death and Resurrection of Jesus, which inaugurated the messianic age) - {PDF Copy}
  3. Paul's Proposition - (Paul presents the points of agreement and disagreement with his opponents at Galatia – Galatians 2:15-21) - {PDF Copy}
  4. Doing the Whole Law - (Anyone who is under the Law of Moses is obligated to keep all its required deeds and rituals – Galatians 3:10.) - {PDF Copy}
  5. Circumcision - A Cutting Issue - (With the new era inaugurated by Jesus, circumcision is no longer the sign of membership in the covenant community) - {PDF Copy}
  6. Torah and Social Barriers - (Galatians 3:26-4:7 - Living under the Torah means inevitable social divisions) - {PDF Copy}
  7. Torah Keeping means a Divided Church - (Galatians 3:26-4:7 - The regulations of the Mosaic Law mean divisions between Jewish and Gentile believers) - {PDF Copy}
  8. Redemption and Adoption - (The Law was an interim stage with a termination point. Therefore, Christians are no longer under it - they are in Christ) - {PDF Copy}
  9. Beggarly Rudiments - (The new Messianic Age has dawned, therefore calendrical rituals and other Levitical rites belong to the old and now obsolete order) - {PDF Copy}
  10. Food and Calendars - (Paul argued for tolerance within the church on food regulations and the observation of holy days - The “shadows” have found their fulfillment in Jesus) - {PDF Copy}
Columbia River Gorge - Photo by Elena Kuchko on Unsplash
Columbia River Gorge - By Elena Kuchko on Unsplash