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30 December 2018

Jesus has Authority over Ritual Impurity

SYNOPSIS:   The touch of the Son of Man cleanses a leper; the forbidden contact does not render Jesus “unclean.” - Mark 1:40-45

Jesus Cleanses a Leper
The touch of Jesus cleansed a leper from ritual impurity and restored him physically AND religiously. What sets the story apart in the Gospel of Mark is that Jesus touched the man BEFORE he was cleansed of his ritual impurity. Any concern for contracting uncleanness did not stop the “Son of Man” from touching a son of Israel in order to make him whole.

Leprosy was a skin ailment, one of the most feared afflictions in the ancient world and dreaded in ancient Israel. Contracting leprosy meant inevitable death preceded by extended periods of isolation from one’s family, home, and society for however many miserable years remained in the life of the leper. Most ominous for a leper was exclusion from the religious institutions and practices of Israel.

In the nation of Israel, a man or woman who contracted leprosy became “unclean,” that is, ritually impure. He or she would remain so unless healed miraculously by God, an extremely rare occurrence in the Old Testament (Numbers 12:10, 2 Kings 5:1-2).

An old rabbinic adage claimed that the healing of leprosy was as difficult as the raising of the dead. Some rabbis referred to lepers as the “living dead.” They were as “unclean” and distant from the Lord as were the dead. Leprosy was both a disease and a “sentence” of banishment to a slow, painful, lonely death. A leper was an exile from Israel and outside the covenant community of Yahweh.

(Mark 1:40-45) - “And there cometh unto him a leper beseeching him and kneeling — saying unto him — If thou be willing, thou canst cleanse me; and, moved with compassion, he stretched forth the hand and touched him, and saith unto him — I am willing, Be cleansed! and, straightway, the leprosy departed from him and he was cleansed; and, strictly charging him, straightway, he urged him forth; and saith unto him — Mind! unto no one say aught — but withdraw thyself, show unto the priest and offer for thy cleansing what things Moses enjoined for a witness unto them. But he, going forth, began to be proclaiming many things and blazing abroad the story, so that no longer was it possible for him, openly, into a city to enter — but, outside, in desert places was he, and they were coming unto him from every quarter” – (The Emphasized Bible – Parallel passages: Matthew 8:1-4Luke 5:12-14).

Lepers lived out their miserable existence as outcasts, their “unclean” status prohibiting them from entering Jerusalem or the Temple where atonement for sins was made. Thus, they were excluded from the social and religious life of the covenant community, cut off from the presence and forgiveness of God.

The Law of Moses required a leper to maintain a repugnant appearance, to bare his or her head, and to announce loudly his or her presence to others. The rule in Second Temple Judaism was that a leper must remain at least fifty paces from others. As proscribed in Leviticus 13:45-46:

Now, as for the leper in whom is the plague, His clothes shall be rent, And his head shall be bare, And his beard shall he cover — And, Unclean! Unclean! shall he cry. All the days that the plague is in him shall he continue unclean, Unclean he is — Alone shall he remain, Outside the camp shall be his dwelling.

In Verse 40, a leper approached Jesus. Precisely how close is not stated but it was near enough for Jesus to reach out and touch him; certainly, less than the fifty paces required by the rabbinic regulations. Unlike the rabbis, Jesus was moved with compassion at the plea of the leper.

The sense of the Greek clause in Mark is more vivid than what is found in many English translations. The Greek reads: Jesus “stretched out his hand and grabbed” the leper. That he stretched out his hand suggests a willing act done without hesitation. The Greek word rendered “grab” means not simply to “touch” but, more accurately, to “take hold, grab, cling to” (haptomai – Strong’s #680). Most of his Jewish contemporaries would have feared even to be in the general vicinity of a leper; however, Jesus, unhesitatingly, took hold of the leprous Israelite.

To touch a leper rendered any uninfected Israelite ritually impure, “unclean,” which would necessitate undergoing rituals required in the Torah to remedy the defiled state. Apparently, this did not concern Jesus. This does not mean he disregarded the Law, but it does demonstrate his willingness to relativize its requirements when confronted with human needs.

When a leper was cured, it was not said that he was “healed” but, rather, “cleansed.” When this leper approached Jesus, he asked not to be “healed” but “cleansed.” By default, being delivered of leprosy meant healing, however, much more is implied by the term “cleansed.” To be ritually “clean” meant an individual could participate in Jewish society and in the religious life of the community.

Jesus ordered the cleansed leper to show himself to a priest for examination. Only a priest was authorized to examine a leper and declare him “clean” (see Leviticus Chapter 13). A leper was not officially “cleansed” and acceptable for reintegration into Jewish society until that process was complete. To order the leper to follow the required regulations was an act of compassion; the sooner this was done, the sooner the man could be restored as a member of Israel.

Rather than go to a priest as ordered, the leper went through the area broadcasting what Jesus had done for him. This resulted in Jesus becoming “unable to enter openly into a town but was, instead, outside in desert places.”

There is great irony in this story. Rather than render the Son of Man “unclean,” as defined by the Law and Jewish customs, his touch rendered a ritually “unclean” leper “clean.

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